Communications satellites are "space mirrors" that can help us bounce radio, TV, Internet data, video conferencing and
other kinds of information from one side of Earth to the other.Video broadcast from one side of Earth to the other,
there are three stages involved:
1. First, there's the uplink, where data is beamed up to the satellite from a ground station on Earth. Next, the satellite processes the data using a number of onboard transponders (radio receivers,amplifiers, and transmitters).
2. Second, Then boost the incoming signals and change their frequency, so incoming signals don't get confused with outgoing ones. Different transponders in the same satellite are used to handle different TV/Satellite stations carried on different frequencies.
3.Finally, there's the downlink, where data is sent back down to another ground station elsewhere on Earth. Communications satellites bounce signals from one side of Earth to the other, a bit like giant mirrors in space. A ground-based satellite transmitter dish (red) beams a signal to the satellite's receiving dish (yellow). The satellite boosts the signal and sends it back down to Earth from its transmitter dish (red) to a receiving dish somewhere else on Earth (yellow). Since the whole process happens using radio waves, which travel at the speed of light, a "satellite relay" of this kind usually takes no more than a few seconds, at most. The various transmitters and receivers on the satellite and on Earth are examples of antennas.
Video conference unit is used to serve a conference in multiple locations which allows communicating
simultaneously by two way audio video transmission and encountered both user and computer interfaces.
The core of a video conferencing system consists of elements that enable the capture and transfer of video images
and audio sounds. These elements are:
● Video input – 2 or more video cameras or web cams; possibly digital projectors / whiteboards.
● Audio input – microphones either centrally located or on individuals.
● Video output – monitor, computer screen, television and/or projector.
● Audio output – professional speakers, headphones or laptop computer speakers.
● Codec–hardware or software-based coder - decoder technology that compresses analog video & audio data into digital packets & decompresses the data on the receiving end.
● Echo cancellation software – diminishes audio delays to enable real-time conversation.
● Network for data transfer – today most video conferencing is transmitted over a high-speed broadband Internet connection, using similar technology as VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol) but LAN and occasionally ISDN connections are used.
● National Knowledge Network (NKN) is a multi-gigabit NREN, whose purpose is to provide a unified high speed
network backbone for educational institutions in India. NKN is a state-of-the-art Pan-India Gigabit network and is a revolutionary
step towards creating a knowledge society without boundaries. Presently over 1500 institutes are connected. The All India Institute
of Medical Sciences, Bhopal also has 1 Gbps connectivity terminated at 2nd Floor Medical College Building AIIMS Bhopal. Used an
ultra-high speed backbone for e-Governance and has links to multiple Global Networks.
● The purpose of such a knowledge network goes to the very core of the country's quest for building quality institutions with requisite research facilities and creating a pool of highly trained professionals. The NKN will enable scientists, researchers and students from different backgrounds and diverse geographies to work closely for advancing human development in critical and emerging areas.
● Madhya Pradesh State Wide Area Network (MP-SWAN) is used to connect all the 52 district of Madhya Pradesh. Extended the connectivity to
reach all Central headquarters/Districts headquarters and to connect every Block/Tehsil available in MP Region.
● The SWAN will provide the primary backbone for communication of voice, data, and video throughout the state and will be an effective tool for implementation of e-Governance Projects. A Total number of 360 PoPs has to be established in CHQ,DHQ & BHQ including 2 Mbps internet line through Point To Point Connectivity via Radio-Frequency (RF) from SWAN Bhopal State Headquarters to All India Institute of Medical Science, Bhopal.
● A PRI Line is only one line physically terminating on the nearest telephone PBX which is available in ground floor AIIMS college Building exchange and can receive/send 30 calls simultaneously.
● It uses multiplexing/de-multiplexing techniques to carry more than one channel in a single circuit. There are two common forms of PRI lines – E1 (which carry 30 channels in the two pairs of copper lines, common in Europe, India) and T1 (which carry 23/24 channels in the two pairs of copper lines, common in United States).
● Each channel in a PRI line provides 64 Kbps for data transmission.
● A PRI line can connect to both Analog/Mixed EPABX systems and also the newer IP PBX systems. A PRI Card / Interface might be required to terminate the PRI circuit on the PBX.
● Symmetrical high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL) is a form of symmetric digital subscriber line (SDSL), a data communications technology for equal transmit and receive (i.e. symmetric) data rate over copper telephone lines, faster than a conventional voiceband modem can provide.
● E1 to E1 application is being used to solve the signal and packet loss issues which effect on voice-based Tele-Health consultation services due to distance measures from Ground Floor Exchange to 2nd Floor, Tele-Health Call Centre Location. Used as an application to convert and to broaden the digital signal, when the digital signal E1 G.703/G.704 conversion is needed and help in transmission at the high distance.
● An IP PBX system consists of one or more SIP phones / VoIP phones, an IP PBX server and optionally includes a VoIP Gateway. The IP PBX server is similar to a proxy server: SIP clients, being either soft phones or hardware based phones,
register with the IP PBX server, and when they wish to make a call they ask the IP PBX to establish the connection.
● The IP PBX has a directory of all phones/users and their corresponding SIP address and thus is able to connect an internal call or route an external call via either a VoIP gateway or a VoIP service provider to the desired destination.
Tele-Health Call Centre Application
● The Tele-health call center in AIIMS Bhopal has been established with 30 channels PRI line where calls are routed through a toll-free number and the
asterisk based application provides specialized telephony switching systems called “Automatic Call Distributors” which is used for queuing and route inbound calls to paramedic’s staff.
● A small application developed on .PHP integrated with open source application which works as a handler for the end users. Other tools include desktop integration, IVRS, call recording, productivity monitoring utilities, workforce application and various methods of historical and near real-time reporting are integrated on IPPBX. Integration of SMS gateway is used to send SMS to the callers which contain a live link of e-prescription for advice, treatment, and consultations.
● MySQL is an open-source relational database management system (RDBMS).
MySQL is the database of choice for several different web programming languages including PHP, Ruby on Rails, and Python.
These programming languages make is extremely easy to connect to a MySQL database.
● Databases can be difficult to manage using just individual SQL statements. It is much easier to manage a database using a graphical user interface (GUI). Used, phpMyAdmin for managing a MySQL database. It is a web-based application that makes it easy to manage your MySQL database. phpMyAdmin allows you to add, remove and manage databases, tables, and entries; backup the database, run specific SQL queries, search and import record, and much more.
A SMS gateway allows a computer to send or receive Short Message Service (SMS) transmissions to or from a telecommunications network.
API integration has been done in relational databases system with the call center application which is used to trigger the manual transactional SMS to the
end user’s for the advice and informational purpose.
● A VoIP phone or IP phone uses voice over IP technologies for placing and transmitting telephone calls over an IP network.The components of a VoIP telephone consist of the hardware and software components.
The software requires standard networking components such as a TCP/IP network stack, client implementation for DHCP, and the Domain Name System (DNS). In addition, a VoIP signaling protocol stack, such as for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), H.323, Skinny Call Control Protocol (Cisco), and Skype, is needed.
● For media streams, the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is used in most VoIP systems. For voice and media encoding, a variety of coders are available, such as for audio: G.711, GSM, iLBC, Speex, G.729, G.722, G.722.2 (AMR-WB), other audio codecs, and for video H.263, H.263+, H.264. User interface software controls the operation of the hardware components, and may respond to user actions with messages to a display screen.
Two-Tier Network Architecture (Topology)
● The telehealth voice-based community outreach platform consecutively based on the commercial ISDN PRI network.
The system is comprised of TWO-Tier architecture system with 20 nodes approx.
where 1st tier is consisting of 5 no. of telehealth executives (THEs) consisting nurses, paramedics and Junior Residents will be the first respondents.
● The 2nd Tier is been answered by MS/MD or Super Specialist doctors from the different department and comprises of including family physicians, gynecologist, pediatrics, surgeons and another specialist will be available on call basis after executing the call transfer/conference from 1st Tier To 2nd Tier.
● 2nd Tier of 15 nodes will be constituted to implement the integration and supported by a scalable open source platform with several intelligence functions including call record manager (CRM), management information system(MIS), computer telephony integration(CTI) and SMS gateway Integration